Alligator pepper (also known as mbongo spice, hepper pepper)
Allspice, also called Jamaica pepper, pepper, myrtle pepper, pimenta, pimento, English pepper or newspice, is the dried unripe fruit.
Star anise, star aniseed, or Chinese star anise is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a medium-sized native evergreen tree of northeast Vietnam and southwest China.
Fennel is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). It is a member of the family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). It is a hardy, perennial, umbelliferous herb, with yellow flowers and feathery leaves.
Annatto, sometimes called roucou or achiote, is derived from the seeds of the achiote trees of tropical and subtropical regions around the world. The seeds are sourced to produce a carotenoid-based yellow to orange food coloring and flavor.
Asafoetida, or asafetida (Hing) is the dried latex exuded from the rhizome or tap root of several species of Ferula, a perennial herb that grows 1 to 1.5 m tall. The species is native to the mountains of Afghanistan, and is mainly cultivated in nearby India. As its name suggests, asafoetida has a fetid smell but in cooked dishes it delivers a smooth flavor, reminiscent of leeks.
Asarabacca, commonly known as European wild ginger, is a species of wild ginger with single axillary dull purple flowers, lying on the ground. It is sometimes harvested for use as a spice or a flavoring.
Bay leaf, also known as tejpatta, Malabar leaf, Indian bark, Indian cassia, or malabathrum is a tree within the Lauraceae family which is native to India, Nepal, Bhutan, and China.
Black cardamom, also known as hill cardamom,Bengal cardamom, greater cardamom, Indian cardamom, Nepal cardamom, winged cardamom, or brown cardamom, comes from either of two species in the family Zingiberaceae. Its seed pods have a strong camphor-like flavor, with a smoky character derived from the method of drying.
Black mustard is an annual weedy plant cultivated for its seeds, which are commonly used as a spice.
Brown mustard, Chinese mustard, or leaf mustard is a species of mustard plant. Subvarieties include southern giant curled mustard, which resembles a headless cabbage such as kale, but with a distinct horseradish-mustard flavor.
Caraway also known as meridian fennel, or Persian cumin,””Shahi Jeera” is a biennial plant in the family Apiaceae, native to western Asia, Europe and Northern Africa.
Carom Seed commonly known as ajowan or ajwain, bishop’s weed, ajowan caraway, carom seeds, or thymol seeds,or vaamu in Telugu or omam (ஓமம்) in Tamil is a plant of India, Pakistan and the Near East whose seeds are used as a spice.
Cardamom is native to India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bhutan; they are recognized by their small seed pods, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin, papery, outer shell and small black seeds.
Carob is a species of flowering evergreen shrub or tree in the pea family, Fabaceae. It is widely cultivated for its edible pods, and as an ornamental tree in gardens. The ripe, dried pod is often ground to carob powder which is used as a substitute for cocoa powder.
Chinese cassia or Chinese cinnamon, is an evergreen tree originating in southern China, and widely cultivated there and elsewhere in southern and eastern Asia (India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam). Chinese cassia is often sold under the culinary name of “cinnamon”.
The cayenne pepper—also known as the Guinea spice, cow-horn pepper, aleva, bird pepper, or, especially in its powdered form, red pepper—is a hot chili pepper used to flavor dishes.
The chili pepper is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. The term in British English and in Australia, New Zealand, India, Malaysia and other Asian countries is just chilli without “pepper”.
Coriander also known as cilantro, Chinese parsley or dhania, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. Coriander is native to regions spanning from southern Europe and North Africa to southwestern Asia. It is a soft plant growing to 50 cm (20 in) tall. The leaves are variable in shape, broadly lobed at the base of the plant, and slender and feathery higher on the flowering stems.
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several trees from the genus Cinnamomum that is used in both sweet and savoury foods. While Cinnamomum verum is sometimes considered to be “true cinnamon”, most cinnamon in international commerce is derived from related species, which are also referred to as “cassia” to distinguish them from “true cinnamon”.
Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum, native to the Maluku Islands in Indonesia, commonly used as spice.
Cubeb (Piper cubeba), or tailed pepper, or shital chini / kabab chini in Hindi is a plant in genus Piper, cultivated for its fruit and essential oil. It is mostly grown in Java and Sumatra, hence sometimes called Java pepper. The fruits are gathered before they are ripe, and carefully dried.
Cumin is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native from the east Mediterranean to India. Its seeds (each one contained within a fruit, which is dried) are used in the cuisines of many different cultures, in both whole and ground form.
The Curry Leaves of curry tree (Murraya koenigii) is a tropical to sub-tropical tree in the family Rutaceae, which is native to India and Sri Lanka. Its leaves are used in many dishes in India and neighbouring countries. Often used in curries, the leaves are generally called by the name “curry leaves”, though they are also translated as “sweet neem leaves” in most Indian languages (as opposed to ordinary neem leaves which are bitter).
Fenugreek is an annual plant in the family Fabaceae with leaves consisting of three small obovate to oblong leaflets. It is cultivated worldwide as a semi-arid crop, and its seeds are a common ingredient in dishes from the Indian Subcontinent.
Fingerroot, lesser galangal or Chinese ginger, is a medicinal and culinary herb from China and Southeast Asia. In English, the root has traditionally been called fingerroot, because the shape of the rhizome resembles that of fingers growing out of a center piece.
Galangal a plant in the ginger family, is an herb used in cooking, especially in Indonesian and Thai cuisines. The galangals are also called blue ginger or Thai ginger.
Garlic, is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and rakkyo. With a history of human use of over 7,000 years, garlic is native to central Asia.
Ginger or ginger root is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale, consumed as a delicacy, medicine, or spice. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric, cardamom, and galangal. The distantly related dicots in the Asarum genus have the common name wild ginger because of their similar taste.
Golpar is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to Iran. It grows wild in humid mountainous regions in Iran, as well in some adjacent areas. The seeds are used as a spice in Persian cooking.
This spice, commonly known as Grains of Paradise, Melegueta pepper, Guinea grains, fom wisa, or Guinea pepper, is obtained from the ground seeds; it imparts a pungent, peppery flavour with hints of citrus.
The term Grains of Selim refers to the seeds of a shrubby tree, found in Africa. It is also known as kimba pepper, African pepper, Moor pepper, Negro pepper, Kani pepper, Kili pepper, Sénégal pepper, Ethiopian pepper, Hwentia and Guinea pepper. The seeds have a musky flavor and are used as a pepper substitute.
Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana, syn. Cochlearia armoracia) is a perennial plant of the Brassicaceae family (which also includes mustard, wasabi, broccoli, and cabbage).
A juniper berry is the female seed cone produced by the various species of junipers. It is not a true berry but a cone with unusually fleshy and merged scales, which give it a berry-like appearance. The cones from a handful of species, especially Juniperus communis, are used as a spice, particularly in European cuisine, and also give gin its distinctive flavour.
Kokum, is a fruit-bearing tree that has culinary, pharmaceutical, and industrial uses.
The spice, known as korarima, Ethiopian cardamom, or false cardamom, is obtained from the plant’s seeds (usually dried), and is extensively used in Ethiopian and Eritrean cuisine.
Mace is the dried “lacy” reddish covering or aril of the nutmeg seed.
Mahlab is an aromatic spice made from the seeds of a species of cherry.
Marjoram is a somewhat cold-sensitive perennial herb or undershrub with sweet pine and citrus flavors.
Nigella sativa is an annual flowering plant, native to south and southwest Asia. It grows to 20–30 cm (7.9–11.8 in) tall, with finely divided, linear (but not thread-like) leaves. The fruit is a large and inflated capsule composed of three to seven united follicles, each containing numerous seeds. The Nigella seed is used as a spice.
The nutmeg tree is any of several species of trees in genus Myristica. Nutmeg is the seed of the tree, roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm.
Neem, is a tree in the mahogany family Meliaceae. It is one of two species in the genus Azadirachta, and is native to India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh growing in tropical and semi-tropical regions.
Paprika is a spice made from ground, dried fruits of Capsicum annuum, either bell pepper or chili pepper varieties or mixtures thereof. Paprika is often associated with Hungary, as it is commonplace in Hungarian cuisine.
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. The fruit, known as a peppercorn when dried, is approximately 5 millimetres (0.20 in) in diameter, dark red when fully mature, and, like all drupes, contains a single seed.
Peppermint is a hybrid mint, a cross between water mint and spearmint. The plant, indigenous to Europe, is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species.
Wood Garlic – known as ramsons, buckrams, wild garlic, broad-leaved garlic, wood garlic, bear leek or bear’s garlic – is a wild relative of chives native to Europe and Asia.
Saffron is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the saffron crocus. Crocus is a genus in the family Iridaceae. Saffron crocus grows to 20–30 cm (8–12 in) and bears up to four flowers, each with three vivid crimson stigmas, which are the distal end of a carpel.
Sumac is any one of approximately 250 species of flowering plants in the genus Rhus and related genera, in the family Anacardiaceae. Sumacs grow in subtropical and temperate regions throughout the world, especially in Africa and North America.
Sichuan pepper, Szechwan pepper or Szechuan pepper, a common spice used in Asian cuisine, is derived from at least two species of the global genus.
Turmeric is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. It is native to tropical Tamilnadu, in southeast India, and needs temperatures between 20 °C and 30 °C (68 °F and 86 °F) and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive.
Vanilla is a flavor derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla. The word vanilla, derived from the diminutive of the Spanish word vaina (vaina itself meaning sheath or pod), simply translates as little pod.
Wasabi is a member of the Brassicaceae family, which includes cabbages, horseradish, and mustard. It is also called Japanese horseradish.
White mustard is an annual plant of the family Brassicaceae. It is sometimes also referred to as Brassica alba or B. hirta. Grown for its seeds, mustard, as fodder crop or as a green manure, it is now widespread worldwide, although it probably originated in the Mediterranean region.