Beef is the culinary name for meat. Beef can be harvested from cows, bulls, heifers or steers. Acceptability as a food source varies in different parts of the world.
- Beef muscle meat can be cut into roasts, short ribs or steak (filet mignon, sirloin steak, rump steak, rib steak, rib eye steak, hanger steak…).
- Some cuts are processed (corned beef or beef jerky), and trimmings, usually mixed with meat from older, leaner cattle, are ground, minced or used in sausages.
- The blood is used in some varieties of blood sausage.
- Other parts that are eaten include the oxtail, liver, tongue, tripe from the reticulum or rumen, glands (particularly the pancreas and thymus, referred to as sweetbread), the heart, the brain, the liver, the kidneys, and the tender testicles of the bull.
- Some intestines are cooked and eaten as-is, but are more often cleaned and used as natural sausage casings. The bones are used for making beef stock.
Veal is the meat of young cattle (calves), in contrast to the beef from older cattle. Though veal can be produced from a calf of either sex and any breed, most veal comes from male calves (bull calves) of dairy cattle breeds. Generally, veal is more expensive than beef from older cattle.
Veal has been an important ingredient in many cuisine from ancient times. The veal is often in the form of cutlets, such as the Italian cotoletta or the famous Austrian dish Wiener Schnitzel. Some classic French veal dishes include fried escalopes, fried veal small, thick fillet steaks, stuffed paupiettes, roast joints etc.
Pork is the culinary name for meat from the domestic pig. It is the most commonly consumed meat worldwide.
Pork is eaten both freshly cooked and preserved. Curing extends the shelf life of the pork products. Ham, smoked pork, gammon, bacon and sausage are examples of preserved pork. Charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products, many from pork. Pork is the most popular meat in East and Southeast Asia, and is also very common in the Western World.
Lamb, Hogget, and Mutton
Lamb, hogget, and mutton at different ages. A sheep in its first year is called a lamb; and its meat is also called lamb. The meat of a sheep older than one year is hogget; The meat of an adult sheep is mutton, a term only used for the meat, not the living animals.In Australia, the term prime lamb is often used to refer to lambs raised for meat.
Lamb — a young sheep under 12 months of age which does not have any permanent incisor teeth in wear.
Hogget — a sheep of either sex having no more than two permanent incisors in wear
Mutton — a female (ewe) or castrated male (wether) sheep having more than two permanent incisors in wear.
The taste of goat kid meat is similar to that of spring lamb meat; in fact, in the English-speaking islands of the Caribbean, and in some parts of Asia, particularly Bangladesh, Pakistan and India, the word “mutton” is used to describe both goat and lamb meat. However, some compare the taste of goat meat to veal or venison, depending on the age and condition of the goat.
Chicken is the most common type of poultry in the world, and was one of the first domesticated bird. Chicken is a major source of meat and eggs for human consumption. It can be prepared in a wide variety of ways. Different cuts are made out of this bird to make variety of dishes (Click To See Various Cuts of Chicken).
Chickens farmed for meat are called broiler chickens. Chickens will naturally live for 6 or more years, but broiler chickens typically take less than 6 weeks to reach slaughter size. A free range or organic meat chicken will usually be slaughtered at about 14 weeks of age.
Chickens farmed for eggs are called egg-laying hens. Some hen breeds can produce over 300 eggs per year, with “the highest authenticated rate of egg laying being 371 eggs in 364 days”. After 12 months of laying, the commercial hen’s egg-laying ability starts to decline.
Ducks are the domesticated bird which are appreciated for their meats and eggs. Duck meat contain a fair amount of vitamin B and some minerals such as zinc, phosphorous, potassium, magnesium and iron. Generally ducks are not included in regular diet but they are made in special occasions.
Duck meat can be grilled, confit, roasted as well as braised as per the choice but this meat can be enjoyed fully with skin because it contain lots of fats which helps to keep the meat soft and juicy. The cuts of the duck is same like chicken. Duck meat is derived primarily from the breasts and legs of ducks. The meat of the legs is darker and somewhat fattier than the meat of the breasts, although the breast meat is darker than the breast meat of a chicken or a turkey.
Goose are the large, fatty bird traditionally used for foods. These are also the celebration bird which is used for the Christmas dinner. It contain lots of fat and it is consumed with the fatty layer of the skin. The meat of the goose are generally braised, roasted and their liver are highly prized as it is used for one of the delicacy for France known as “Goose Liver Pate” or “Foie Gras Pate”.
- Canada Goose: This is most popular variety of bird.
- Greylag or Pinkfoot: These are smaller than canada goose but they are most flavorful.
- Whitefront: These are smallest goose.
Turkey originally came from America and it was first domesticated in Maxico. Day by day it became a very popular menu item in France, Italy and Britain. It is one of the festive meat that mostly consumed in Christmas eve dinner as roasted turkey. Turkey is now available in all Asian countries where it is now cultivated for consumption. Turkeys are usually baked or roasted in an oven for several hours, often while the cook prepares the remainder of the meal. Sometimes, a turkey is brined before roasting to enhance flavor and moisture content. Smoked Turkey breasts are also available in the markets which are very good for salads and sandwiches.
- Bronze Bird: These are dark feathered bird and spotted skin.
- White Bird: These are white feathered bird.
- Free range and Organic Bird
- Wild Turkey: These are smaller than the domesticated one and the meat of these birds are strong, gamier and full of flavor.
Turkey contains more protein per ounce than other meats. Turkey is served with dressing on the side, with cranberry sauce and gravy. Common complementary dishes include mashed potatoes, corn on the cob, green beans, squash, and sweet potatoes. Pie is the usual dessert, especially those made from pumpkins, apples, or pecans.
Wild Feathered Game
Pheasant is one of the most popular and plentiful game bird. They are introduced in Europe by Chinese. Both male and female bird are used for its meat. Now a days these birds are farmed in different countries for their popularity in food. The young birds can be enjoyed by roasting them where as the older one can be stewed and casseroled.
Grouse are one of the popular game in Scotland but it also found in some places of Britain. These game birds has a very strong gamey flavor and the young birds can be enjoyed by roasting & grilling them where as the older one can be stewed and casseroled.
Partridges are native to Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Partridges are ground-nesting seed-eaters. There are two types of partridge such as French Partridge which is most flavorful and Red-legged Partridge which is bigger. These games can be roasted, braised or stewed to enjoy it perfectly.
Pigeon are cheap and available through out the world all year around. These are generally fed on paddy and other cereals. The big wood pigeons are meaty birds which weighs about 400-450 gms. They can be roasted and served with flavorful sauce or they can be braised on a bed of vegetables.
Woodcock is a small bird found in North America and Eurasia. They are the small bird with a long beak generally stay in the ground. These birds are found in brown, gray and black colour. These birds can be enjoyed roasting, grilling and braising.
Snipe are the thin long legged bird with very long beak. The species of these birds are spread through out the world but abundantly found in Europe, Asia and New Zealand. These are generally roasted but small one can be grilled and one or two can be served per portion.
Ptarmigan are the birds with lots of subspecies generally found in cold climate areas. These are the member of grouse family but their habitat is high stony mountain. The flavor of the meat varies according to the nature of feed. These game birds has a very strong gamey flavor and the young birds can be enjoyed by roasting & grilling them where as the older one can be stewed and casseroled.
Deer The term venison refers to the meat of deer in Britain and Australia. Deer meat is dark, close textured meat and contain very little fat. Saddle or loin of the deer is supposed to be the prime cut which is tender and can be served rare on the other hand cuts which are tougher can be used for slow cooking to enjoy the best flavor.
Rabbit are originally from Africa, now wild rabbits are found all over the world. It is a small animal which can be bought whole or in pieces. There flesh is pale in color and mild in flavor. The meat of the female rabbit is tender than a male. The best way to enjoy rabbit is by cooking it thorough casserole method or confit.
Wild Boar generally found in central Asia, Europe and North Africa. The meat of Wild Boar is dark in color and have very less amount of fat. It has a strong meaty taste. While buying wild boar find for the pink and moist flesh and the fat should be white not yellow. It can be enjoyed by braising and stewing.