The term “fats” is used to refer to substances that are solid at room temperature, such as butter, margarine, shortening and lard. “Oils” refer to those that are liquid in normal conditions (exceptions are coconut and palm oil, which remain semi-solid). Food scientists, however, consider all oils to be fats and instead focus their attention on whether a fat is saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated.
- Butter: This is a delicious solid fat churned from milk. It’s used in baking, frying, and as a spread on toast and muffins.
- Caul Fat: Look for this in the meat sections of Asian, French, and Italian markets. Caul fat from pork is considered superior to caul fat from lamb.
- Clarified butter: This is butter without the milk solids, so it doesn’t go rancid or smoke when heated to a high temperature. Look for jars of it in Indian markets.
- Lard is rendered pork fat. It’s high in saturated fat, and quite bad for you. Still, it’s the fat of choice for making flaky pie crusts, though it’s not as flavorful as butter. Some pastry chefs combine butter with lard to achieve a balance of flavor and flakiness. Lard is also used for frying since it can reach high temperatures without smoking.
- Margarine: is made mainly of refined vegetable oil and water. While butter is made from the butterfat of milk, modern margarine is made from plant oils and may also contain milk. In some locales it is colloquially referred to as “oleo”, short for oleomargarine.
- Vegetable Shortening is any fat that is solid at room temperature and used to make crumbly pastry. Shortening is used in pastries that should not be elastic, such as cake.Although butter is solid at room temperature and is frequently used in making pastry, the term “shortening” seldom refers to butter, but is more closely related to margarine.
- Suet is raw beef or mutton fat, especially the hard fat found around the loins and kidneys. Suet has a melting point of between 45°C and 50°C (113°F and 122°F) and congelation between 37°C and 40°C. (98.6°F and 104°F). Its high smoke point makes it ideal for deep frying and pastry production.
Cooking oil is plant, animal, or synthetic fat used in frying, baking, and other types of cooking. It is also used in food preparation and flavoring that doesn’t involve heat, such as salad dressings and bread dips, and in this sense might be more accurately termed edible oil.
- Almond Oil: Almonds are a rich source of oil, with values ranging between 36 to 60% of kernel dry mass. A study by Venkatchalam and Sathe suggests almonds contain approximately 44% oils, of which 62% is monounsaturated oleic acid (an omega-9 fatty acid), 29% is linoleic acid (a polyunsaturated omega-6 essential fatty acid), and 9% is saturated fatty acid.
- Avocado oil is an edible oil pressed from the fruit of the Persea americana (avocado). As a food oil, it is used as an ingredient in other dishes, and as a cooking oil. It is also used for lubrication and in cosmetics, where it is valued for its supposed regenerative and moisturizing properties. It has an unusually high smoke point, both unrefined and especially when refined. The smoke point of the unrefined form is 400 °F (204 °C) and the refined form can reach 520 °F (271 °C). The exact smoke point depends heavily on the quality of refinement and the way the oil has been handled up until reaching store shelves and subsequent kitchens.
- Canola Oil: Canola refers to both an edible oil (also known as Canola oil) produced from the seed of any of several varieties of the rape plant, and to those plants, namely a cultivar of either rapeseed or field mustard/turnip rape. Consumption of the oil is not believed to cause harm in humans and livestock. It is also used as a source of bio diesel.
- Coconut oil is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of matured coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). It has various applications in food, medicine, and industry. Because of its high saturated fat content it is slow to oxidize and, thus, resistant to rancidification, lasting up to two years without spoiling. Many health organizations advise against the consumption of high amounts of coconut oil due to its high levels of saturated fat.
- Rice bran oil (also known as rice bran extract) is the oil extracted from the germ and inner husk of rice. It is notable for its high smoke point of 232 °C (450 °F) and its mild flavor, making it suitable for high-temperature cooking methods such as stir frying and deep frying. It is popular as a cooking oil in several Asian countries, including Japan and China.
- Corn oil (maize oil) is oil extracted from the germ of corn (maize). Its main use is in cooking, where its high smoke point makes refined corn oil a valuable frying oil. It is also a key ingredient in some margarines. Corn oil is generally less expensive than most other types of vegetable oils. One bushel of corn contains 1.55 pounds of corn oil (2.8% by weight). Corn agronomists have developed high-oil varieties; however, these varieties tend to show lower field yields, so they are not universally accepted by growers.
- Cottonseed oil is a cooking oil extracted from the seeds of cotton plants of various species, mainly Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium herbaceum, that are grown for cotton fiber, animal feed, and oil. Cotton seed has a similar structure to other oilseeds such as sunflower seed, having an oil-bearing kernel surrounded by a hard outer hull; in processing, the oil is extracted from the kernel. Cottonseed oil is used for salad oil, mayonnaise, salad dressing, and similar products because of its flavor stability.
- Linseed oil, also known as flaxseed oil is a colourless to yellowish oil obtained from the dried, ripened seeds of the flax plant. The oil is obtained by pressing, sometimes followed by solvent extraction. Flax-based oils are sought after as food because of their high levels of α-Linolenic acid (a particular form of omega-3 fatty acid), but it is important that only food-grade oil be used for food. Boiled linseed oil is heated and treated with chemicals that make it unfit for human consumption. Linseed oil is an edible oil marketed as a nutritional supplement. In parts of Europe, it is traditionally eaten with potatoes and quark (cheese). It is regarded as a delicacy due to its hearty taste, which enhances the flavour of quark, which is otherwise bland.
- Grape seed oil (also called grapeseed oil or grape oil) is pressed from the seeds of grapes, and is thus an abundant by-product of winemaking. Grape seed oil has a moderately high smoke point of approximately 216 °C (421 °F). Due to its clean, light taste, and high polyunsaturated fat content, it may be used as an ingredient in salad dressings and mayonnaise and as a base for oil infusions of garlic, rosemary, or other herbs or spices. It is also excellent for use in baked goods, pancakes, and waffles. It is also sprayed on raisins to help them retain their flavor.
- Hemp oil or hempseed oil is obtained by pressing hemp seeds. Cold pressed, unrefined hemp oil is dark to clear light green in color, with a nutty flavour. The darker the color, the grassier the flavour. It should not be confused with hash oil, a THC containing oil made from the cannabis flower, hailed by some for its medicinal qualities. The oil is of high nutritional value because of its 3:1 ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids, which matches the balance required by the human body.
- The term mustard oil is used for three different oils that are made from mustard seeds:*A fatty vegetable oil resulting from pressing the seeds,
*An essential oil resulting from grinding the seeds, mixing them with water, and extracting the resulting volatile oil by distillation.
*An oil made by infusing mustard seed extract into another vegetable oil, such as soybean oil. The pungency of mustard oil is due to the presence of allyl isothiocyanate. Mustard oil was once popular as a cooking oil in northern India. In the second half of the 20th century the popularity of mustard oil receded due to the availability of mass-produced vegetable oils.
- Macadamia oil (or macadamia nut oil) is the non-volatile oil expressed from the nut meat of the macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) tree, a native Australian nut. Macadamia oil is sometimes used in food as a frying or salad oil, and in cosmetic formulations as an emollient or fragrance fixative. Macadamia oil has become very popular in modern Australian cuisine. It is an excellent frying oil due to its high heat capacity. Several properties of macadamia oil are particularly important for use as an edible oil:It contains up to 85% monounsaturated fats
It has an unrefrigerated shelf life of one to two years
It has a smoke point of 410 °F (210 °C)
- Nigella Oil: The seeds also contain a fatty oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids, mainly linoleic acid (50 – 60%), oleic acid (20%), eicodadienoic acid (3%) and dihomolinoleic acid (10%) which is characteristic for the genus. Saturated fatty acids (palmitic, stearic acid) amount to about 30% or less. Commercial nigella oil (“Black Seed Oil”, “Black Cumin Oil”) may also contain parts of the essential oil, mostly thymoquinone, by which it acquires an aromatic flavor.
- Olive oil is a fat obtained from the olive (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. The oil is produced by pressing whole olives. It is commonly used in cooking, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. Olive oil is used throughout the world, but especially in the Mediterranean countries and, in particular, in Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece, which has the highest consumption per person.The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as:
Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of mechanical means only, with no chemical treatment. The term virgin oil with reference to production method includes both Virgin and Extra-Virgin olive oil products, depending on quality.
Lampante oil is olive oil extracted by virgin (mechanical) methods but not suitable as food; lampante is Italian for “lamp”, referring to the use of such oil for burning in lamps. Lampante oil can be used for industrial purposes, or refined to make it edible.
Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). Virgin olive oil (including the grades extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil) therefore cannot contain any refined oil.
Olive pomace oil means oil extracted from the pomace using solvents, mostly hexane, and by heat.
- Palm oil (also known as dendê oil, from Portuguese) is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palms, primarily the African oil palm, and to a lesser extent from the American oil palm and the maripa palm.Palm oil is naturally reddish in color because of a high beta-carotene content. The differences are in color (raw palm kernel oil lacks carotenoids and is not red), and in saturated fat content: Palm mesocarp oil is 41% saturated, while Palm Kernel oil and Coconut oil are 81% and 86% saturated respectively. Palm oil is composed of fatty acids, esterified with glycerol like all fat. Unlike all fat, it is high in saturated fatty acids, which are solid at room temperature. Palm oil gives its name to the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid palmitic acid. Monounsaturated oleic acid is also a constituent of palm oil. Unrefined palm oil is a large natural source of tocotrienol, part of the vitamin E family.
- Peanut oil, also known as groundnut oil or arachis oil, is a mild tasting vegetable oil derived from peanuts. The oil is available in refined, unrefined, cold pressed, and roasted varieties, the latter with a strong peanut flavor and aroma, analogous to sesame oil. It is often used in Chinese, South Asian and Southeast Asian cuisine, both for general cooking, and in the case of roasted oil, for added flavor. Peanut oil has a high smoke point relative to many other cooking oils, so is commonly used for frying foods.
- Pumpkin seed oil is a culinary specialty of south eastern Austria (Styria), eastern Slovenia (Styria and Prekmurje), Central Transylvania, Orastie-Cugir region of Romania, north western Croatia (esp. Međimurje), and adjacent regions of Hungary. Pumpkin seed oil has an intense nutty taste and is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Browned oil has a bitter taste. Pumpkin seed oil serves as a salad dressing when combined with honey or olive oil. The typical Styrian dressing consists of pumpkin seed oil and cider vinegar. The oil is also used for desserts, giving ordinary vanilla ice cream a nutty taste.
- Safflower Oil: There are two types of safflower that produce different kinds of oil: one high in monounsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid) and the other high in polyunsaturated fatty acid (linoleic acid). Currently the predominant edible oil market is for the former, which is lower in saturates than olive oil, for example. The latter is used in painting in the place of linseed oil, particularly with white paints, as it does not have the yellow tint which linseed oil possesses.
- Sesame oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from sesame seeds. Besides being used as a cooking oil in South India, it is often used as a flavor enhancer in Chinese, Japanese, Middle Eastern, Korean, and Southeast Asian cuisine. The oil from the nutrient rich seed is popular in alternative medicine – from traditional massages and treatments to the modern day. The traditional Indian medical practice of Ayurveda uses sesame oil to pacify stress related symptoms. Ongoing research also indicates that the rich presence of antioxidants and polyunsaturated fats in sesame oil could help control blood pressure.
- Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the soybean. It is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils. As a drying oil, processed soybean oil is also used as a base for printing inks (soy ink) and oil paints. To produce soybean oil, the soybeans are cracked, adjusted for moisture content, heated to between 60 and 88 ºC (140–190 °F), rolled into flakes, and solvent-extracted with hexanes. The oil is then refined, blended for different applications, and sometimes hydrogenated. Soybean oils, both liquid and partially hydrogenated are sold as “vegetable oil,” or are ingredients in a wide variety of processed foods. Most of the remaining residue (soybean meal) is used as animal feed.
- Sunflower oil is the non-volatile oil compressed from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds. Sunflower oil is commonly used in food as a frying oil, and in cosmetic formulations as an emollient. Sunflower oil was first industrially produced in 1835 in the Russian Empire. The world’s largest sunflower oil producers now are Ukraine, Russia and Argentina. Sunflower oil is a monounsaturated (MUFA)/polyunsaturated (PUFA) mixture of mostly oleic acid (omega-9)-linoleic acid (omega-6) group of oils. The oil content of the seed ranges from 22 to 36% (average, 28%): the kernel contains 45–55% oil. The expressed oil is of light amber color with a mild and pleasant flavor; refined oil is pale yellow. Refining losses are low and the oil has good keeping qualities with light tendency for flavor reversion. The oil contains appreciable quantities of vitamin E, sterols, squalene, and other aliphatic hydrocarbons, terpene and methyl ketones (chiefly methyl nonyl ketone).
- Tea seed oil (also known as Tea Oil Camellia or oil-seed Camellia) is an edible, pale amber-green fixed oil with a sweet, herbal aroma. It is cold-pressed mainly from the seeds of Camellia sinensis.Tea seed oil resembles olive oil and grape seed oil in its excellent storage qualities and low content of saturated fat. Monounsaturated oleic acid may comprise up to 88 percent of the fatty acids. It is high in vitamin E and other antioxidants and contains no natural trans fats.
Tea seed oil is used in salad dressings, dips, marinades and sauces, for sautéing, stir frying and frying and in margarine production.
Tea seed oil is also used as an ingredient in the Chinese medicated oil Po Sum On.
Research by the Institute of Preventative Medicine of Sun Yat-Sen University has found camellia extract to be used in washing and laundry powders.
- Walnut oil is oil extracted from English walnuts (also known as Persian walnuts). Each 100.0g of oil provides about 63.3g polyunsaturated fatty acids, 22.8g monounsaturated fats, and 9.1g saturated fats. It contains no cholesterol. Walnut oil is edible and is generally used less than other oils in food preparation, often due to high pricing. It is light-coloured and delicate in flavour and scent, with a nutty quality. Although chefs sometimes use walnut oil for pan frying, most avoid walnut oil for high temperature cooking; heating tends to reduce the oil’s flavour & nutritive value and to produce a slight bitterness. In addition cooking rapidly destroys the oil’s antioxidants. Walnut oil is at its most valuable in cold dishes such as salad dressings, where it lends its flavour to best advantage.
Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/; www.foodsubs.com