All-purpose: Flour that does not have a leavening agent is called plain or all-purpose flour. It is appropriate for most bread and pizza bases. Some cookies are also prepared using this type of flour. Bread flour is high in gluten protein, with 12.5-14% protein compared to 10-12% protein in all-purpose flour. The increased protein binds to the flour to entrap carbon dioxide released by the yeast fermentation process, resulting in a stronger rise.
Cake Flour: is a finely milled white flour made from soft wheat. It has very low protein content, between 8% and 10%, making it suitable for soft-textured cakes and cookies. The higher protein content of other flours would make the cakes tough. Highly sifted cake flours may require different volume amounts in recipes than all-purpose flour.
Self -rising Flour: are used with some flours,especially those with significant gluten content, to produce lighter and softer baked products by embedding small gas bubbles. Self-rising (or self-raising) flour is sold premixed with chemical leavening agents. The added ingredients are evenly distributed throughout the flour which aids a consistent rise in baked goods. This flour is generally used for preparing scones, biscuits, muffins, etc.
Baking soda: Sodium bicarbonate, referred to as “baking soda” is primarily used in cooking (baking), as a leavening agent. It reacts with acidic components in batters, releasing carbon dioxide, which causes expansion of the batter and forms the characteristic texture and grain in pancakes, cakes, quick breads, soda bread, and other baked and fried foods.
Baking powder: Baking powder is a dry chemical leavening agent, a mixture of a weak alkali and a weak acid (Cream of Tartar), and is used to increase the volume and lighten the texture of baked goods. Baking powder works by releasing carbon dioxide gas into a batter or dough through an acid-base reaction, causing bubbles in the wet mixture to expand and thus leavening the mixture.
Granulated sugars are used at the table to sprinkle on foods and to sweeten hot drinks and in home baking to add sweetness and texture to cooked products. They are also used as a preservative to prevent micro-organisms from growing and perishable food from spoiling as in jams, marmalades, and candied fruits.
Milled sugars are ground to a fine powder. They are used as icing sugar, for dusting foods and in baking and confectionery.
Caster sugars are crystalline products separated according to the size of the grains. They are used for decorative table sugars, for blending in dry mixes and in baking and confectionery.
Brown sugars are granulated sugars with the grains coated in molasses to produce a light, dark, or demerara sugar. They are used in baked goods, confectionery, and toffees.
Butter: is a dairy product that consists of butterfat, milk proteins, and water. It is made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk. It is used as a spread and a condiment—and in cooking, such as baking, sauce making, and pan frying.
Margarine: is made mainly of refined vegetable oil and water. While butter is made from the butterfat of milk, modern margarine is made from plant oils and may also contain milk. In some locales it is colloquially referred to as “oleo”, short for oleomargarine.
Solid shortening: Shortening is any fat that is solid at room temperature and used to make crumbly pastry. Shortening is used in pastries that should not be elastic, such as cake.Although butter is solid at room temperature and is frequently used in making pastry, the term “shortening” seldom refers to butter, but is more closely related to margarine.
Vegetable Oil: A vegetable oil is a triglyceride extracted from a plant. Such oils have been part of human culture for millennia. The term “vegetable oil” can be narrowly defined as referring only to substances that are liquid at room temperature, or broadly defined without regard to a substance’s state of matter at a given temperature.For this reason, vegetable oils that are solid at room temperature are sometimes called vegetable fats.
Canola Oil: Canola refers to both an edible oil (also known as Canola oil) produced from the seed of any of several varieties of the rape plant, and to those plants, namely a cultivar of either rapeseed or field mustard/turnip rape. Consumption of the oil is not believed to cause harm in humans and livestock. It is also used as a source of bio diesel.
Milk: is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother’s antibodies to the baby and can reduce the risk of many diseases in the baby. It also contains many other nutrients.
Buttermilk: refers to a number of dairy drinks. Originally, buttermilk was the liquid left behind after churning butter out of cream. This type of buttermilk is known as traditional buttermilk.
Evaporated: Evaporated milk, also known as dehydrated milk, is a shelf-stable canned milk product with about 60% of the water removed from fresh milk. It differs from sweetened condensed milk, which contains added sugar. Sweetened condensed milk requires less processing since the added sugar inhibits bacterial growth.
Sweetened condensed: is cow’s milk from which water has been removed. It is most often found in the form of sweetened condensed milk, with sugar added, and the two terms “condensed milk” and “sweetened condensed milk” are often used synonymously today. Sweetened condensed milk is a very thick, sweet product which when canned can last for years without refrigeration if unopened.
Fresh cream: Cream is a dairy product that is composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un-homogenized milk, the fat, which is less dense, will eventually rise to the top. In the industrial production of cream, this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called “separators”. In many countries, cream is sold in several grades depending on the total butterfat content. Cream can be dried to a powder for shipment to distant markets.
Eggs : In the kitchen eggs are used in various cooking techniques and processes; and they are as versatile as they are magical, with thickening, absorbing, stabilizing, aerating and lifting capabilities.
Chocolates: Chocolate is a processed, typically sweetened food produced from the seed of the tropical Theobroma cacao tree.After fermentation, the beans are dried, cleaned, and roasted. The shell is removed to produce cacao nibs, which are then ground to cocoa mass, pure chocolate in rough form. Because the cocoa mass is usually liquefied before being molded with or without other ingredients, it is called chocolate liquor. The liquor also may be processed into two components: cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Unsweetened baking chocolate (bitter chocolate) contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, a combination of cocoa solids, cocoa butter or other fat, and sugar. Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that additionally contains milk powder or condensed milk. White chocolate contains cocoa butter, sugar, and milk but no cocoa solids.
- Dutch Processed Cocoa
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Sesame: Sesame seed is one of the oldest oil seed crops known, domesticated well over 3000 years ago. It was a major summer crop in the Middle East for thousands of years, as attested to by the discovery of many ancient presses for sesame oil in the region. Sesame is drought-tolerant and is able to grow where other crops fail. Sesame has one of the highest oil contents of any seed. With a rich nutty flavor, it is a common ingredient in cuisines across the world. Like other nuts and foods, it can trigger allergic reactions in some people.
Poppy: Poppy seed is an oil seed obtained from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). The tiny kidney-shaped seeds have been harvested from dried seed pods by various civilizations for thousands of years. The seeds are used, whole or ground, as an ingredient in many foods, and they are pressed to yield poppy seed oil.
Sunflower: The sunflower seed is the fruit of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus). The term “sunflower seed” is actually a misnomer when applied to the seed in its pericarp (hull). Botanically speaking, it is more properly referred to as an achene. When dehulled, the edible remainder is called the sunflower kernel or heart. There are three types of commonly used sunflower seeds: linoleic (most common), high oleic, and NuSun. Each variety has its own unique levels of monounsaturated, saturated, and polyunsaturated fats. The information in this article refers mainly to the linoleic variety.
Extracts : is a solution containing the flavor compound as the primary ingredient. Pure vanilla extract is made by macerating and percolating vanilla beans in a solution of ethyl alcohol and water. In the United States, in order for a vanilla extract to be called pure, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires that the solution contains a minimum 35% of alcohol and 100g of vanilla beans per litre (13.35 ounces per gallon).Double and triple strength (up to 20-fold) vanilla extracts are available.
Baker’s Yeast: Baker’s yeast is the common name for the strains of yeast commonly used as a leavening agent in baking bread and bakery products, where it converts the fermentable sugars present in the dough into carbon dioxide and ethanol. Baker’s yeast is of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is the same species (but a different strain) commonly used in alcoholic fermentation, which is called brewer’s yeast. Baker’s yeast is also a single-cell microorganism found on and around the human body. (Read More)
Glucose syrup is a food syrup, made from the hydrolysis of starch. Maize is commonly used as the source of the starch in the US, in which case the syrup is called “corn syrup”, but glucose syrup is also made from other starch crops, including potatoes, wheat, barley, rice and cassava. Its major uses in commercially prepared foods are as a thickener, sweetener, and humectant (an ingredient that retains moisture and thus maintains a food’s freshness). Glucose syrup is also widely used in the manufacture of a variety of candy products.
Sugar paste icing is a very sweet edible sugar dough usually made from sugar and glucose. It is sometimes referred to as sugar gum or gum paste, but should not be confused with fondant. It can be used to cover cakes, to mold features, and create decorations for cakes and many other uses. Sugar paste is sold in white and colors. The white version can be easily colored with gel food colourings; nearly every color can be reached in this manner.